By William D. Davies
Madurese is a tremendous neighborhood language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, mostly at the island of Madura and adjoining elements of Java, making it the fourth biggest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there's no present accomplished descriptive grammar of the language, with latest stories being both sketches of the full grammar, or specified descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific subject matters inside those parts of the grammar. there isn't any competing paintings that offers the breadth and intensity of assurance of this grammar, specifically (though no longer solely) with reference to syntax.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Madurese (Mouton Grammar Library 50)
3. 13 Syllables can, however, take any of the following forms. pi ‘clothes’ The clusters in CCV(C) syllables come largely but not exclusively from two sources: forms that have undergone vowel deletion and borrowings. As is shown below, [praɔ], [glanɔn], [rɛsna] and [klampi] are derived from /paraɔ/, /galanɔn/, /aresna/ and /kalampi/, respectively. trɛ] is borrowed from Indonesian. Preference for disyllabic roots manifests itself in the large number of words with initial əC1C1 which correspond to Indonesian monosyllabic roots with initial C1.
There are two other notable vowel correspondences that occur sporadically. 12 This occurs only in open syllables and is due in part to the fact that Madurese // occurs only in closed syllables, as discussed in section 3. (10) Madurese [ka] [carɛta] [parɛksa] 12 Indonesian [kə] [ərita] [pəriksa] ‘to’ ‘story’ ‘examine’ These correspondences again largely reflect the development of Proto-MalayoPolynesian vowels in the two languages. See Stevens 1966. Syllable structure and phonotactic constraints 25 The opposite correspondence obtains in some cognates.
So, as with [p] and [t], some word-final phonemic /k/ in cognates correspond to underlying /k/ in Madurese while others correspond to underlying //. 1. Where the palatal glide occurs in Indonesian cognates, a voiced palatal stop // is generally found in Madurese. 10 Stevens (1966) notes that Proto-Malayo-Polynesian word-final *p, *t, and *k developed into Madurese //. It is possible that words that do have final /p/, /t/, and /k/ entered the language through borrowing from Malay and/or Javanese or at least were influenced by them.