By M. W. Service (auth.)
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Extra resources for A Guide to Medical Entomology
8 half-gravid unfed Diagram representing the gonotrophic cycle of a female mosquito, starting with a female in an unfed condition and passing through a blood-fed, half-gravid and gravid condition, then after oviposition the female becomes unfed again ready for another blood-meal. Introduction to mosquitoes females may also feed on sugary substances to obtain energy for flight and dispersal, but only in a few species (the autogenous ones) is this type of food sufficient for egg development. Oviposition and biology of the eggs Depending on the species, female mosquitoes lay about 30-300 eggs at any one oviposition.
There have been a few limited field trials, some of which have shown promise, but genetic control of mosquitoes is still only in the experimental stage. The main advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the increasing problems of insecticide resistance which is fast developing in many mosquito species, and there is no contamination of the environment with insecticides, - but there are also difficulties. Advanced technology and expertise is Introduction to mosquitoes required, also the ability to rear vast numbers of mosquitoes to be released into the field to compete with or replace natural populations.
Fig 4· 7 Diagram of the head of a female culicine mosquito to show the components of the mouthparts dissected from the labium. 6). A pair of trilobed salivary glands, situated ventrally in the anterior part of the thorax (figure 2. I I), pumps saliva down through the salivary ducts which unite to form a single duct which passes down the entire length of the hypopharynx. Saliva contains anticoagulins and /or haemagglutinins which prevent the blood from clotting and obstructing the mouthparts as it is sucked into the stomach.