By Rodney Huddleston, Geoffrey K. Pullum
This groundbreaking undergraduate textbook on glossy typical English grammar is the 1st to be according to the innovative advances of the authors' earlier paintings, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002). The textual content is meant for college students in schools or universities who've very little earlier historical past in grammar, and presupposes no linguistics. It comprises workouts, and should supply a foundation for introductions to grammar and classes at the constitution of English, not just in linguistics departments but in addition in English language and literature departments and colleges of schooling.
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Additional resources for A Student's Introduction to English Grammar
Ii a. He writes to her. b. They were kind to her. b. He 1£ kind to her. [preterite] [3rd sing present] No such contrasts apply to the plain form verbs in [9ii-v] . For example, the con struction in [9iv] doesn' t allow either the preterite or the 3rd singular present: [I l] a. *It 's better to wrote to her. ii a. *It 's better to writes to her. b. *It 's better to was kind to her. b. *It 's better to 1£ kind to her. The plain present tense and the plain form thus enter into quite different sets uf contrast within the verb paradigm.
But the affixes can't: there are no words *en, * ly , *un. Every word contains at least one or more bases; and a word may or may not contain affixes in addition. Affixes are subdivided into prefixes, which precede the base to which they attach, and suffixes, which follow. When citing them individually, we indicate their status by putting · after prefixes ( en· , un· ) and before suffixes ( · ly, ·ing). Exercises I . Divide the main clauses of the following examples into subject and predicate. Underline the subject and double-underline the predicate.
Have you told her? %Has he enough money ? %Have I to sign both forms ? *Has he a fit when you do that? b. b. b. b. *Do you have told her? Does he have enough money. Do I have to sign both forms ? Does he have a fit when you do that? [ perfect ] } [ static ] [dynamic] (c) Need Need behaves as an auxiliary (a modal auxiliary) when it has a bare infinitival com plement (overt or understood). Elsewhere, it is a lexical verb. e. in neg atives, interrogatives and related constructions: J Static have as an auxiliary is used more by older than by younger speakers, and is more characteris tic of BrE than AmE.