By Karsten Schmidtke-Bode
This e-book provides the 1st accomplished typology of objective clause buildings within the world’s languages. according to a stratified sort pattern of eighty languages, it uncovers the solidarity and variety of the morphosyntactic capacity through which purposive relatives are coded, and discusses the prestige of function clauses within the syntactic and conceptual house of advanced sentences. causes for considerably recurrent coding styles are couched in a usage-based method of language constitution, which can pay due realization to the cognitive and communicative pressures on utilization occasions related to function clauses, to frequency distributions of grammatical offerings in corpora, and to the ways that utilization personal tastes conventionalize in pathways of diachronic switch. The booklet integrates diversified earlier strands of analysis on objective clauses with an intensive empirical research in its personal correct and hence displays the present cutting-edge of crosslinguistic examine into this specific kind of adverbial clause.An appendix to A Typology of function Clauses are available at the author's site: www.karsten-schmidtke.net/purpose
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Extra info for A Typology of Purpose Clauses
The sample chosen for the present study follows these recommendations. Calculating the number of languages that should enter an 80-language sample while reflecting the exact proportions of stocks to area, one arrives at the following picture (Table 3). The last column already points to some severe sampling difficulties. Two areas, Oceania and South America, are understudied in the sense that many of their native languages have not yet been documented in a reference grammar. e. complex sentences in general and purpose clauses in particular.
This method is based on Greenberg’s idea of multilateral comparison (cf. Greenberg 2005 for an overview), by which he arrived at extremely large groupings, such as Amerindian (for basically all of Northern, Middle and South America except for three other families) and IndoPacific (for all non-Austronesian languages of Oceania). Greenberg’s and hence Ruhlen’s classification is not uncontroversial, and a number of typologists prefer ‘splitting’ approaches until a genetic relationship between two languages can be reconstructed by means of the comparative method.
The main verb, by contrast, carries precisely such a prefix: (12) Kiowa (Kiowa-Tanoan: Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas; Watkins 1984: 229) Gyà-kí·+kɔ·tɔ+tòt. ’ The last and trickiest category is that of serial verbs, in which two verb forms are welded into a complex verbal expression, as in Acehnese: (13) Acehnese (Austronesian: Indonesia; Durie 1985: 196) Ku = jak = seumayang kee dilee u = krueng. ’ Typical serial verbs are used to conceptualize the two situations involved as being part of one complex event (Payne 1997: 307), and it is the entire complex that can receive TAM or person marking.