Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald

The experiences during this quantity recommend that each language has an adjective category, yet those range in personality and in measurement. In its grammatical homes, an adjective classification may possibly beas just like nouns, or to verbs, or to either, or to neither.ze. while in a few languages the adjective category is big and will be freely extra to, in others it truly is small and closed. with only a dozen or so contributors. The e-book will curiosity students and complex scholars of language typology and of the syntax and semantics of adjectives.

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B) As a specification that helps focus on the referent of the head noun in an NP that relates to a predicate argument. This is shown by the adjective functioning as a modifier within an NP, as in (7) from English and (8) from Fijian. In each example, the modifying adjective is underlined. 2 In most languages all adjectives have functions (a) and (b). In some, just a few adjectives maybe confined to one of these functions. (For examples and discussion of adjectives in English which can occur only as modifier or only as copula 2 In some languages a noun may be modified by more than one adjective.

One might expect a correlation: languages in which adjectives can be intransitive predicate might be thought likely to lack a copula construction, with languages for which adjectives cannot function as intransitive predicate being likely to have a copula construction. From examination of a range of languages, it appears that there is in fact no correlation. That is, whether or not a language has a copula construction is quite independent of whether or not adjectives can be intransitive predicates.

Many 10 R. M. W. Dixon languages have an open class of adjectives (although this is always considerably smaller than the noun class, and generally also much smaller than the verb class), but others have a small, closed class. The smallest classes may have just three or four members. Typically, there may be 10-20 monomorphemic adjectives. Other languages have larger classes—with several score or even several hundred members—but they are closed; that is, no new lexemes, in the form of loans, may be added to them.

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