By W.G. Frankenburg, V.I. Komarewsky, E.K. Rideal (Eds.)
With this moment quantity of Advances in Catalysis, the editors have persevered their efforts to offer the numerous elements of the catalytic method. a couple of hugely certified males have contributed to this quantity. From the theoretical remedies of uncomplicated techniques among molecules reacting at good surfaces to the technically very important activities of fluoride catalysts, and to catalytic polymerizations of olefins, the reader becomes familiar with manifold rules and with a few average experimental effects when it comes to catalytic phenomena. Our loss of a whole figuring out of catalytic motion, and our corresponding lack of ability to ''predict'' the way in which of attaining a wanted catalytic response, make it critical for everybody operating during this path to familiarize himself with the adventure of others, no matter if such adventure was once collected in distant sectors of this titanic box.
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Extra info for Advances in Catalysis, Vol. 2
14a) H Recent work (Brown and Pearsall, 15) has indicated that while hydrogen aluminum tetrachloride is nonexistent, interaction of aluminum chloride and hydrogen chloride does occur in the presence of substances (such as benzene and presumably, olefins) to which basic properties may be ascribed. It may be concluded that while hydrogen aluminum tetrachloride is an unstable acid, its esters are fairly stable. Further evidence in support of the hypothesis that metal halides cause the “ionization” of alkyl halides (the products of the addition of the hydrogen halide promoters to the olefins) is found in the fact that exchange of radioactive chlorine atoms for ordinary chlorine atoms occurs when tert-butyl chloride is treated with aluminum chloride containing radioactive chlorine atoms; the hydrogen chloride which is evolved is radioactive (Fairbrother, 16).
45). Equimolecular quantities of the alcohols were used. The octenes, which were obtained in 78 % yield, consisted of diisobutylenes (25 %), 3,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene(40%), and 2,3,4-trimethyl-2-pentene (35%). The formation of all these products may be explained on the basis of the addition of a tert-butyl ion t o a n olefin: C C- OH C-C- - -OH -C 75% H2SO4 75% Has04 C b C- x c: + c-b + + C=C-C + C- b C-6-C c: CI C-C-6-C xb b+ -C-G-C + H+ C=C-C e C-C=C-C 2 C- + H+ K -C-C=C A t : + H+ (53) (54) 25 % + C-C=C-C S C- i j + -C--CC bi: XXXVI + C- xc : b -C=C-C 40 % It C-6-C-C-C bc:A XXXVII + H+ + C-C=C-C-C Abc: + H+ (55) 35 % Formation of XXXVII apparently again involves a 1,3-shift of a methyl group (cf.
IPATIEFF steric reasons: such a reaction would put two tertiary butyl groups on one carbon atom (eq. 28). Furthermore, 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene isomerizes readily (by way of the carbonium ion VI) to 2,4,4-trimethyl1-pentene, to which the tert-butyl carbonium ion does add. CHs- r3 KHa + + CHa- &Ha (CH3)3C -CH=C-CHs AH( \ _\/ _ &Ha /\+ / + CH-C-CH3 I (CHdaC (28) CH3 b. 2-Butene. The octene which is obtained by the action of 75% sulfuric acid on sec-butyl alcohol a t 80" under pressure consists primarily of 3,4-dimethyl-2-hexene (Drake and Veitch, 30).