By M. Rashid Khan
Coal, oil and gasoline proceed to supply the most gasoline resource for world wide energy construction and transportation, yet all 3 are dwindling assets. along the advance of more desirable power creation and usage, and the improvement of alternative fuels from biomass, learn and improvement remains to be part of the conversion of mainstream and replacement hydrocarbon fuels (fossil fuels), with the ambitions of bettering conversion potency for optimum gas output with minimal environmental effect, in addition to of manufacturing hydrogen, syngas, and in flip fresh liquid fuels for either energy iteration and transportation usage. Catalysts and catalysis are serious to the improvement of those approaches, taking into consideration program of expertise to a much wider variety of hydrocarbon fuels, together with substitute fossil gasoline assets equivalent to lower-grade coals, oil shales, tar sands, and methane clathrates. This ebook presents a entire and systematic reference at the diversity of other hydrocarbon conversion strategies and know-how. It reports good fuels resembling coal, puppy coke, lignite, oil shale, tar sands and bitumen; gaseous fuels like hydrogen and syngas; and liquid fuels corresponding to crude oil, heavy oil, and paraffin.
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Extra info for Advances in clean hydrocarbon fuel processing: Science and technology
Grinding mainly by impact, • Air-swept to dry and convey materials, • Classifier or whizzer on top with rejects reground, • Up to 20 t/h, finest product −150 mesh (100 µm), • Higher wear rates, but lower capital cost than roller-race mills, • Energy consumption twice that of roller-race mills. Fluid energy (jet) mills (dry) • Superheated steam or compressed gas jets convey material at high speeds, particle-particle or particle-wall collisions cause particle breakage by impact or attrition, • Low capacities and high power consumption, but able to grind to 100% − 5 µm.
The one referred to in this chapter are: • • • • Coal–oil mixture fuels (COM) – a suspension of coal in fuel oil, which may contain up to 10% by weight of water. Coal–oil–water fuels (COW) and coal-water-oil fuels (CWO) – suspensions of coal in fuel oil and 10% or more water. Oil is the main liquid component in COWs and water in CWOs. Coal–water fuels (CWF) – a suspension of coal in water, also referred to as coal–water slurries (CWS). The term CWF seems to prevail and is preferable since it allows a differentiation from pipelined coal-water slurries.
A high yield stress helps keep the particles suspended, so lowshear viscosity is closely related to slurry stability. Addition of water to COM increases their stability by promoting particle interactions through water bridges. Ultrasonic or high shear mixing causes excellent water dispersion and improved stability. , 1985). Coal–water slurries tend to settle more easily and stabilizing additives are often used to increase the yield stress of the slurry. , 1986). , 1985). The above discussion is related closely to coal slurry fuels but the issues are equally important for coal gasification or liquefaction feedstocks when slurry use is involved.