Advances in Parasitology, Vol. 58 by John R. Baker, Ralph Muller, David Rollinson

By John R. Baker, Ralph Muller, David Rollinson

The Advances in Parasitology sequence includes in-depth studies on present issues of curiosity in modern parasitology. It contains scientific experiences on parasites of significant impression, akin to trypanosomiasis and scabies, and extra conventional parts, akin to zoology, taxonomy, and existence heritage, which form present considering and purposes. * sequence has the second one optimum ISI impression think about the parasitology crew! (4.818 in 2002) * members are foreign specialists within the box

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1). Whether Leishmania Ags coming from phagocytosed parasites could follow this pathway to be eventually presented to CD8 T lymphocytes is not known. Clearly, studies on the role of Leishmania-infected MÈs in the class I–restricted presentation of parasite Ags are required to settle this question. 3. MHC II Ag Presentation by Infected MÈs More studies have been devoted to the presentation, by Leishmaniainfected MÈs, of Ags associated with MHC class II molecules, and LEISHMANIA SPP. 27 the conclusions from these studies are much clearer.

2003). 2. -C. ANTOINE ET AL. MHC II Ag Presentation As for the generation of MHC I–peptide complexes, several pathways involved in the formation of MHC class II–peptide complexes have been described. After their synthesis in the RER of APCs, MHC class II molecules that are composed of two transmembrane chains and reach the Golgi apparatus and then the trans-Golgi network in association with transmembrane invariant chains Ii. Ii chains are endowed with important functions since they play a chaperone role for class II molecules, they block the peptide-binding groove of the latter and they allow their targeting from the trans-Golgi network to early or late endosomes.

IL-10 IL-13 IL-4 L-arginine L-ornithine + urea polyamine biosynthesis essential for parasite growth amastigotes TGF-β β L-arginase I activation PGE2 Figure 7 Alternative activation of Leishmania-infected MÈs. In the presence of IL-4/IL-13 (for example, in mice developing a Th2 type immune response towards Leishmania), or in the presence of the deactivating cytokines IL-10 or TGF- (for example, in mice affected by a visceral leishmaniasis), infected MÈs could be engaged in the synthesis of L-arginase I that degrades L-arginine into L-ornithine.

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