By James L Bittle; Frederick A Murphy
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Additional info for Advances in veterinary science and comparative medicine. Vol. 33, Vaccine biotechnology
Parapertussis, can be either parasites or, as in swine and dogs, common inhabitants of the upper respiratory tract. These small, serologically related bacilli produce a dermonecrotic toxin. , 1977). Local, not serum, antibody concentration is important in clearance of the infection. 48 J A M E S L. BITTLE A N D S U S I E M U I R 1. Bordetella pertussis The etiologic agent of whooping cough, Β. pertussis, produces two distinct hemagglutinins, leukocytosis-promoting factor-hemagglutinin (LPF-HA) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and various toxins (pertussis toxin [PT] and dermonecrotic toxin).
39 Clostridium The pathogenic Clostridia invade both m a n and m a n y animal species of veterinary interest, in which they cause such diseases as tetanus (C. tetani), gas gangrene (C. perfringens, C. septicum, C. oedematous), botulism (C. botulinum), enterotoxemia, and dysentery (C. perfringens). The Clostridia are widely distributed in soil and water and a r e common inhabitants of the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Additionally, the bacteria can often be isolated from infected wounds.
Additionally, a temperature-sensitive m u t a n t strain of Sendai virus has been used as an aerosol-delivered vaccine in mice. It suppresses virus replication, but the vaccine virus spreads throughout the colony and makes it difficult to monitor for wild virus strains (Kimura et al, 1979). b. Canine Parainfluenza Virus. Outbreaks of mild respiratory disease in laboratory dogs have been attributed to parainfluenza type 2 virus (Binn et al, 1968; Crandell et al, 1968). When other respiratory agents such as mycoplasma and Bordetella bronchiseptica were given intranasally after exposure to this parainfluenza virus, more severe respiratory signs occurred (Appel and Percy, 1970).