By Dominic Pasura (auth.)
Read or Download African Transnational Diasporas: Fractured Communities and Plural Identities of Zimbabweans in Britain PDF
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Extra resources for African Transnational Diasporas: Fractured Communities and Plural Identities of Zimbabweans in Britain
Tölölyan, 2007, p. 648) While it is laudable to maintain the distinction between dispersion caused by catastrophic origins and dispersion motivated by economic reasons, contemporary movements spurred by globalization and transnationalism mean that distinctions are often blurred. Although the majority of diasporas are formed from traumatic experiences, the book consistently argues that diasporas can be formed even if their origins are not catastrophic. As Chapter 2 will show, Zimbabweans migrated to Britain using different strategies such as the ancestral route, student route, asylum route and work-permit route.
Human Rights Watch (2002), for example, chronicled stories of war veterans and associated ZANU-PF militia occupying commercial farms, intimidating, assaulting and sometimes killing white farm owners and their workers. Similarly, the International Crisis Group (2002, p. 7) reported on how the ZANU-PF party used ‘torture’ as a tool to silence Vintages and Patterns of Migration 31 the opposition and suppress freedom of speech and association. The same report alleges that ‘rape continues to be used [as a tool] for political control’.
Summing up the essence of the Zimbabwe crisis, Kagoro (2003) argues that it is a confluence of several colonial and post-independence experiences, among them: a violent and fraudulent process of colonization and domination that dehumanized black people; a hegemonic struggle for decolonization that culminated in a largely symbolic independence devoid of material gain for the majority black population; the failure by the independence leadership to transform the repressive colonial state structure into a democratic institution; the dismal failure of International Monetary Fund/World Bank structural adjustment policies; a corrupt, self-seeking and authoritarian political elite leading the state; and a culture of intolerance and impunity that was inherited from the country’s colonial past.