An Introduction To Model Theory by Zarko Mijajlovic

By Zarko Mijajlovic

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That doesn’t necessarily mean that they are true or false but only that they cannot be tested. For example, you might come up with a hypothesis that all the fossils we have ever found were put in the ground by God to confuse us. This is not a scientific hypothesis because we have no objective way of testing it. Many evolutionary hypotheses, however, are testable. For example, specific predictions about the fossil record can be made based on our knowledge of evolution. One such prediction is that humans evolved after the first appearance of mammals.

Of course not. Atoms are real (facts), and atomic theory refers to a set of confirmed hypotheses used to explain these facts. As such, atoms refer to both a fact and a theory. Likewise, evolution is both a fact and a theory. As noted below, we have evidence that evolution has occurred in the past and continues to occur today. indd 13 I I I I I I I theory A set of hypotheses that have been tested repeatedly and that have not been rejected. This term is sometimes used in a different sense in social science literature.

Over time, the hypothesis of natural selection, developed by Charles Darwin and explained below, has stood the test of time as a major component (along with other mechanisms discussed in later chapters) of modern evolutionary theory. 4 Charles Darwin developed the idea of natural selection as a way of explaining how organisms evolve over time by adapting to their environment. Organisms that are more likely to survive and reproduce pass their genetic material on to future generations. I I I I I I I taxonomy The science of describing and classifying organisms.

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